Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Astronomy As a Natural Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Space science As a Natural Science - Essay Example The cosmologyâ encompasses the investigation of the universe overall. Such ancient societies incorporate the Nubian and Egyptian landmarks and other early developments, for example, the Iranians, Maya, Chinese, Greeks, Babylonians and the Indians. There was the need to develop the telescope before cosmology made it into the cutting edge science. Cosmology has generally included controls going from astrometry, observational space science, divine route and the creation of schedules (Trumper, pg. 11). As of now, space science is viewed as equivalent with astronomy. In the twentieth century, stargazing split into hypothetical and observational branches. Perception space science center around securing information from different perceptions of cosmic items that is then broke down utilizing essential standards of material science. Then again, hypothetical cosmology is arranged towards PC advancement or expository models that depict the galactic marvels and articles (Renner et al., pg. 618) . Thomas Harriot was the principal individual, four centuries back, to appear as though a divine item utilizing a magnifying instrument. He utilized his basic Dutch trunk telescope to see the moon in the late 1600s and mentioned drawings of the objective facts (Basu and Matzner, N. p. 115). Thomas was working inside a similar time as Galileo and really, Thomas did his perception before Galileo. Both Galileo and Thomas were stargazers. They invested energy in contemplating heavenly bodies all the more so the moon. The two of them built up an enthusiasm for examining the lunar. In contrast to Galileo, Harriot didn't distribute his observational drawing however he had the option to impart his adaptive discoveries to a gathering of English journalists. The two of them drew â€Å"moon maps† and they accepted to be the geological surface of the moon to be (Hyslop, pg. 293). The kind of moon maps, for this situation, is all around outlined in some writing works, for example, in the School of Night where a letter is missing and the query output to the revelation of covered gold and coded maps (Bayard, 2010). This book was written in the sixteenth century. These coded maps are in reality a portion of the drawings by Thomas and Galileo.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Free Essays on The Education Of Odysseus And Gilgamesh

The Education of Odysseus and Gilgamesh Odysseus and Gilgamesh are the two characters in sagas who become legends through the difficulties they face on their particular excursions. During each character’s venture he learns the characteristics that a decent pioneer and saint must have. The two of them start off as imperfect men and pioneers and the tests they face on their excursions instruct them to defeat their defects and become better pioneers just as saints. A genuine pioneer must be agreeable in his isolation and ready to act alone. In every epic the two characters are in circumstances where they are both disengaged and feel overwhelmingly desolate. Gilgamesh experiences depression more than once all through the epic. At the outset, he is forlorn to such an extent that he goes about as a dictator, overlooks his obligations as a ruler and seeks after little youngsters and ladies all through his realm in a journey for friendship. Later on Gilgamesh turns out to be forlorn again after the demise of Enkidu which sets him off into profound sadness and he feels as if he has no reason for living any more. Odysseus, then again, is stuck on an island with Calypso for a long time with practically no desire for getting back. He yearns to get back to his significant other and child, however he has no boat and no team to assist him with arriving. Both Odysseus and Gilgamesh can conquer this terrible depression with assistance from their divine beings. To keep Gilgamesh in the clear and less desolate, the divine beings Anu and Aruru make Enkidu as an adversary for Gilgamesh. Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s match and equivalent as far as brain and quality and after a short beginning fight, the two become old buddies immediately. Be that as it may, Enkidu ends up being just a transitory fix to Gilgamesh’s depression and when he passes on Gilgamesh is hopeless by and by. In any case, Enkidu’s demise is the occasion that eventually sends Gilgamesh on his journey for everlasting status. What's more, toward the finish of the epic when Gilgamesh returns to his country, he understands that it isn’t the en... Free Essays on The Education Of Odysseus And Gilgamesh Free Essays on The Education Of Odysseus And Gilgamesh The Education of Odysseus and Gilgamesh Odysseus and Gilgamesh are the two characters in legends who become saints through the difficulties they face on their separate excursions. During each character’s venture he learns the characteristics that a decent pioneer and legend must have. The two of them start off as defective men and pioneers and the tests they face on their excursions instruct them to conquer their imperfections and become better pioneers just as legends. A genuine pioneer must be agreeable in his isolation and ready to act alone. In every epic the two characters are in circumstances where they are both segregated and feel overwhelmingly desolate. Gilgamesh experiences dejection more than once all through the epic. In the first place, he is desolate to the point that he goes about as a dictator, overlooks his obligations as a lord and seeks after small kids and ladies all through his realm in a journey for friendship. Later on Gilgamesh turns out to be desolate again after the passing of Enkidu which sets him off into profound wretchedness and he feels just as he has no reason for living any more. Odysseus, then again, is stuck on an island with Calypso for a long time with basically no expectation of getting back. He aches to get back to his significant other and child, yet he has no boat and no group to assist him with arriving. Both Odysseus and Gilgamesh can defeat this agonizing dejection with assistance from their divine beings. To keep Gilgamesh in the clear and less forlorn, the divine beings Anu and Aruru make Enkidu as an opponent for Gilgamesh. Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s match and equivalent as far as psyche and quality and after a short beginning fight, the two become old buddies immediately. In any case, Enkidu ends up being just a transitory fix to Gilgamesh’s dejection and when he bites the dust Gilgamesh is hopeless indeed. Yet, Enkidu’s demise is the occasion that eventually sends Gilgamesh on his journey for interminability. Furthermore, toward the finish of the epic when Gilgamesh returns to his country, he understands that it isn’t the en...

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Laboratory , Engineering Design Practice Example

Laboratory , Engineering Design Practice Example Laboratory , Engineering Design Practice â€" Assignment Example > AbstractCalorimetry is the measure of the heat evolved during a chemical process or heat required to sustain a chemical process. Calorimeter is a device used to measure the heat in a quantitative manner within control conditions. The same principle is applied in cone calorimeter. Cone calorimeter is an important laboratory device used to measure the characteristics of fire of small samples of various materials. Cone calorimeter measures the various aspects of combustion of substances utilising the principle of oxygen combustion calorimetry. Cone calorimeter has been specifically made to use the oxygen consumption calorimetry principle. (Mouritz, A. Gibson, 2007). The most important element in any combustion is the availability of oxygen. The overall heat produced during the combustion of an organic material has a direct correlation to the quantitative aspect of oxygen. There are various basic aspects of heat that provide much information when doing experiments concerning heat. Hea t capacity can be quantified in terms of molar heat capacity which is the heat capacity of a particular compound divided by the number of moles of that compound. Another quantitative aspect of heat capacity is specific heat which is the heat of an element divided by its mass. It is also important to note that heat capacity of any substance always has a positive value. Other aspects of fire and combustion in general that need consideration when working with a cone calorimeter include: the cumulative quantity of heat released, the rate of heat released per unit area, the time of ignition, the effective heat of the combustion, the total loss of mass, the rate of the loss of the mass and the smoke obstruction. These are important aspects during an experiment because they may lead to variable results for the same material if at all they are not considered during the experiment. (Taylor and Francis, 2006). IntroductionThe cone calorimeter works by measuring the heat produced by a sample burned in a closed oxygen atmosphere, enclosed by water and in control experimental conditions. The basic principle behind the functioning of cone calorimeter still remains the same. The instrument is made from the understanding of the engineering aspects of fire. Aim of the ExperimentThe aim of the experiment is familiarization of the operations of the cone calorimeter by using it to quantitatively analyse various samples. The samples include blue carpets, green carpets and experiments on various underlay. Objective of the experimentThe objective of the experiment is to analyse the various properties of fire which include: the cumulative quantity of heat released, the rate of heat released per unit area, the time of ignition, the effective heat of the combustion, the total loss of mass, the rate of the loss of the mass and the smoke obstruction. The blue carpets, the green carpets and the underlay will both be analysed by doing each of the experiments three times in order to find a more reliable average of the results. BackgroundThe cone calorimeter has been used for many years for the analysis of combustion properties of various substances; therefore the results from the experiment should be able to provide a credible source of information about the different substances. (Haines, B. 2006).

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Differentiation in the Classroom - 917 Words

Differentiation In this short essay I intend to explain the meaning of differentiation.... In order to fully explain differentiation it is important to turn to The National Curriculum and look at what has become known as the ‘general inclusion statement’. This statement contains a statement that defines inclusion as â€Å"a demand on teachers not to ignore the three principles of inclusion (below) in their planning† Session 1 / Inclusion, the individual and the environment. In short, these three principals are: To set suitable learning challenges, to respond to pupil’s diverse learning needs, and overcoming potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups. In other words teachers are expected to develop lessons†¦show more content†¦So how would we differentiate a lesson so that it fulfilled the needs of SEN students? Firstly, it is important to know the educational needs of all students in every classroom. We would find this information for every student regardless of SEN in their targets and performance histori es. But with SEN students we should also find help from the SENCO or person in charge of co-ordinating the needs of SEN students. Once these students have been identified they will appear on a document such as an SEN register or student support list. The aim of this list is to help us as teachers identify our SEN pupils-forewarned is forearmed. OFSTED would then expect to see that lessons are differentiated to take these students needs into account. Therefore, if I were taking a class with a visually impaired pupil I would be expected to have provided resources that overcame any barriers to learning that this might cause in my lesson. This might include worksheets in large print for the student or temperature probes that emit an audible reading rather than a visual one. If I were working with a student with dyslexia issues I would look at the students IEP (individual education plan) and identify way to help that student fully participate in the lesson. This might be something as sim ple as allowing the student to use their laptop for written exercises or giving handouts on specially coloured sheets of paper. In a practical cooking lesson I might employ a sequenceShow MoreRelatedDifferentiated Curriculum Is Absolutely Necessary Essay1156 Words   |  5 Pagesconstantly changing. What was the best yesterday is not the best today, therefore one must possess a growth mindset. Tomlinson and Allan (2000) stated whatever does not change does not grow, and whatever does not grow atrophies. Many schools and classroom are atrophying because there is a lack of a growth mindset. There is compelling knowledge developed in recent generations on how students learn, including gender, starting point of readiness, culture, motivation, ability/disability and socio-economicRead MoreDifferentiation Between Students And Learning Opportunities1292 Words   |  6 PagesDifferentiation According to Tomlinson, 1999 â€Å"this model provides a framework for responding to differences in students’ current and developing levels of readiness, their learning profiles, and their interests, to optimize the match between students and learning opportunities† (Tomlinson Jarvis, 2009, p. 599). It takes into account student differences in â€Å"designing opportunities for each student to engage with information and ideas† (Tomlinson Jarvis, 2009, p. 599) Criterion 1: Respect forRead MorePersonal Statement : The Teaching Profession1234 Words   |  5 Pageswords ourselves. Such words include blending learning, blooms taxonomy, competencies, individual difference, and differentiation. In truth, some of these terms are used as justification for ideas or theories, without comprehending fully what we, the teacher, is fully saying. I chose the topic of differentiation to better understand what it is and what it isn’t. I know what differentiation is, or should be, but I am witness to so many teachers that use this term, but never practice the strategy. ToRead MoreBuilding Relationships : A Democratic Classroom1254 Words   |  6 Pagestheir self-esteem and create a positive environment. Create a democratic classroom. A democratic classroom is an environment that allows students to have choices and feel safe asking questions and making mistakes. This environment shows students that their ideas and opinions matter and are important for their own and others learning. A democratic classroom helps create a sense of community among your students. Creating Classroom Community, explains the importance of students developing empathy for othersRead MoreA Typical Government Classroom Within Virginia Incorporates A Curriculum Of The Greater Democracy Of America1407 Words   |  6 PagesA typical Government classroom in Virginia incorporates a multitude of different personalities and learning styles. This classroom is not much different. There are the typical four walls, windows for daydreaming, a white board, and a projection screen. Inside this classroom is where magic begins to happen and children begin to blossom and prepare for life as an adult. Children become aware of th eir surroundings both in school and as a citizen of not only the United States, but the World. RelationshipsRead MoreCurriculum : Differentiated Curriculum Exploration Essay1579 Words   |  7 Pagesnumber one in the author’s list about what leaders for differentiation need to know to create a coherent and effective individualized curriculum. They described change as imperative for success. Then, the authors continued their descriptors by stating that, â€Å"the focus of school change must be classroom practice† (p.35). After informally interviewing few of my colleagues, I have determined that differentiation in the individual classrooms are not common, but rare. Some educators have been tryingRead MoreCollaborative Professional Learning Project : Rationale Essay747 Words   |  3 Pagespractice of differentiation is rooted in a student-centered philosophy or ethic of teaching†(Tomlinson, 2010). Moreover, a primary school improvement goal and focus for the 2015-2016 school year is to provide professional development for teachers on differentiating instruction. The Collaborative Professional Learning Project researched and conducted by this candidate provided an introduction to differentiation as well as gave valuable resources related to implementing differentiation. Common CharacteristicsRead MoreIntroduction. As We Concentrate On Closing Achievement1501 Words   |  7 Pagesfor the learner’s level of availability, predispositions, and learning styles. In the circumstance of a classroom, changing degrees of differences prevail within inside the students, according to Tomlinson, C. (2000). These might come from social financial, imbalances, custom, racial disparities, religious beliefs, gender, incapacity, motivation, individual interest and so on. Differentiation originates from the possibility that students from various foundations depict an alternate pattern in theirRead MoreInclusivity Of All Students Is Essential For Effective Teaching And Learning923 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstanding students and how they learn is paramount for equity for all students. This essay will demonstrate how inclusion, diversity of learners, differentiation of lessons together with ethical and legal responsibilities for teachers and professional conduct , all align together to provide an inclusive, safe classroom for all students regardless of ability. Classrooms display a range of diverse students who should have access to the same quality education, regardless of their socio-economic background, variedRead MoreM4 Research Design Critique Report1143 Words   |  5 Pagesdesigned for the researcher to take action and improve instructional practice in their classroom, school, or learning community (p. 462). Article Summary Action Research Design The purpose of the article by Kirkey (2005) was to, â€Å"systematically reflect upon my teaching practices, and to investigate the benefits of differentiated instruction using action research methods† (p. 1). By reflecting upon her classroom population and professional development the research question that Kirkey (2005) formed

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Summary of The Notebook Essay - 974 Words

Ever wonder what it would be like if the person you love unconditionally lost all of their memories? The film â€Å"The Notebook† originally written by author Nicholas Sparks, starts with characters Noah and Allie married to each other after many years together. Allie is in the hospital suffering from Alzheimers disease. Noah reads to her daily from his notebook. The notebook is a diary of their life together. As Noah reads to Allie their life flashes back to when they first met, as teenagers, where Allie spent her summers and follows them as couple through the ups and downs of their world win of a relationship. Allie was from a wealthy family. Noah was a poor Miner boy. It did not take long for the two of them to become inseparable†¦show more content†¦When Allie reads this in the newspaper, all her feelings for Noah returned. Confused, Allie decided to go back home. Allie wanted and needed to see this house. While in the town, Noah sees Allie from a store window. Noah is in shock, wants her back. Allie shows up to the house he renovated and can’t believe her eyes. After all these years and separation, Noah made the house exactly has he had promised her. It is evident she feels the same way, but she now has a fiancà ©. Allie decides to spend the days with Noah and this time became as it was when they were teenagers. Noah wants forever, Allie is confused because she is to be married soon. Noah asks her to stay with him but she can’t. Noah tells Allie that he stills loves her, he never stopped. Noah asks What do you want? Allie repeatedly cries, â€Å"I donà ¢â‚¬â„¢t know†, but he does not take this as an answer. Noah does not want to lose her for a second time. Allie screams she has to go and tells him this is not right, she is about to be married. Allie leaves Noah and heads back to the hotel. Now Allie is confused and has to decide which love she wants. Noah stops reading the notebook and Allies memories fade after a few minutes again. Allie doesn’t know who the man that is sitting next to her and starts screaming for help. A nurse runs in the room to help her and asks Noah to please leave and to stop reading to her, this will not help.Show MoreRelatedSummary Of The Family Notebook 2051 Words   |  9 PagesGrace Weiner 9/14/2016 2B Running in The Family Notebook Assignment Section 1 – Chapter Summaries Prologue: Drought Since December – shows the author getting used to the climate of Ceylon because of how much it differs from where he came from. †¢ Intense heat †¢ Reminiscing of when he used to be in Ceylon Asian Rumors: Michael longs for a return to Asia. This section expresses his feelings for Ceylon and how important the place is to him. Asia – analyzes and dreams about Asia during Michael Ondaatje’sRead MoreSummary Of The Book The Notebook 3367 Words   |  14 PagesMaddy Michielssen Mr. Hyde English 2 Pre-AP, Period 4 Tuesday, October 17, 2014 The Notebook Nicholas Sparks SETTING The story of The Notebook begins in New Bern, a city close to North Carolina’s North coast, in Craven Country in 1932. The story then fast-forwards to the year 1946, still in the same city, New Bern, in the deep south of the Unite States. The story ends in the modern era, today, in a nursing home called Creekside Extended Care Facility. PLOT A man named Noah Calhoun retreated backRead MoreBio 100 Appendix E Essay999 Words   |  4 Pagesinstructions. A printed copy of these instructions will aid in completing the lab accurately and effectively, because you will not need to switch back and forth between computer screens. 2. Disable your pop-up blocker. LeafLab and the LeafLab Online Notebook will open in new browser windows. If you have a pop-up blocker, they will be blocked. 3. Read the online introduction and background information related to this lab 2. What are the two major sections of the lab assignment? Self-CheckRead MoreToshiba Notebook742 Words   |  3 Pages1. Case Summary Toshihiro Nakamura, manufacturing engineering section head, examined the prototype assembly process heet for the newest subnotebook computer model. When every new model was designed, considerable attention was directed toward; * reducing the numbers of components, * simplifying parts production and * assembly requirements. This new computer’s production was scheduled to begin in 10 days. Initial production for new model was to be at 150 units/day, increasing to 250Read MoreThe Thinking Behind Interactive Notebooks1083 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Interactive Notebooks are broadly utilized as a part of classrooms; some school systems have made them required for specific subjects while in other systems, instructors use them independently. The reason behind an interactive notebooks is to help students organize, and synthesize information given to them in class. The thinking behind Interactive notebooks started with instructional procedures, for example, note taking, idea mapping, and association of data as well as brain researchRead MoreThe Molecular Medicine And Genetics Community940 Words   |  4 Pagesprocess knowledge. For the discourse community discussed in my extended writing project, the Molecular Medicine and Genetics community, a few commonly utilized genre are analyzed. These genres include research articles, research reports, and lab notebooks. Rhetorical and Other Textual Features Content Research Article: The audience for a genre is not necessarily limited to one discourse community; rather, it can be used to achieve Discourse with other communities. The research article genre allowsRead MoreEvolution Lab Essay594 Words   |  3 Pageslab report consists of three sections: Data, Exploration, and Lab Summary. Data: copy any data, graphs, charts, or notes that you have saved in your EvolutionLab online notebook into this section. Exploration: Answer the questions. The questions in the Exploration section are the same questions in your EvolutionLab instructions. Lab Summary: Write a 100- to 200-word summary. Data To copy your data from your online notebook into this section, click on Export Graph and then copy and pasteRead MoreQuestions On Stock Reports Research Essay1348 Words   |  6 Pagesjournal in which you discuss what you are writing, what you are reading in relation to your written work, and how writing for class relates to other writing you are doing or have done.† I am a mixture of the two, I have a whole written process in my notebook that I use strictly for my business stocks, but as I’m doing the step by step process I recite what I’m doing so I won’t forget anything that I have to do. In order to help complete this process I used a website called Screencast-o-Matic, it isRead MoreSemester A Unit 3 Lesson 31626 Words   |  7 Pagesmight have the central idea of â€Å"the struggle of slavery.† How would we find the central idea as we read? Maybe we would make a list of details we saw in the text. We would certainly need to analyze the text for context clues. Open your digital notebook and describe your strategy and the learning skills you will use to succeed in this lesson. image: http://pixabay.com/en/bubble-caucasian-thought-daydream-19329/ Instruction, Modeling and Student Activities The central idea is the centralRead More5-Day Lesson Plan1065 Words   |  5 Pages (ocean, sea, theory, freshwater, salinity, lake, river, underground water, oceanography). Student groups will complete â€Å"Label the Earth’s Oceans†. CLOSURE: Review and discuss oceans. SUMMARY/EVALUATION: Constructed response. HOMEWORK: Complete â€Å"Continents and Oceans Quiz† handout. ADVANCED PREPARATION: Put television in front of chalkboard and put in video â€Å"Why is the Ocean Salty?† – 04/24/11. Michelle Kendred

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gandhian Model of Development Free Essays

Gandhian model of development was emphasized by the Janata Party. The model emphasized the rapid development of agriculture and small industries. Village and small industries were emphasized from the point of view of production as well as employment. We will write a custom essay sample on Gandhian Model of Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now The model necessitated the following changes in the pattern of planning : (i) Employment-oriented planning to replace production-oriented planning : Nehru model by over-empathizing a capital-intensive pattern of development failed to generate enough employment. But unemployment and under-employment are at the root of the problems of poverty and inequality.There is a strong need to demarcate areas with high employment potential and investment should be directed in such areas so that the pattern of investment becomes employment-orated and the economy increases its absorptive capacity of labour. (ii) Emphasis on development of agriculture as a means of enlarging employment : Char an Singh, an ardent advocate of the Gandhian model brought out the hard reality that while in India only 39 workers were employed per 100 acres in 1971, in Japan, South Korea and Egypt, the number of workers employed per 100 acres ranged between 87 and 71.In case, intensive cultivation is done, India can enlarge employment by 50 to 60 million in agriculture alone. It is, therefore, necessary that agricultural development be taken as the foundation of the development process. The experience of the development in the states of Punjab and Haryana also corroborates the v iew that these states were able to achieve high growth rates via agricultural development and thus bring about a sharp reduction of population below the poverty lien as well as unemployment. (iii) Emphasis on small industries as against large industries :The Gandhian model emphasised that â€Å"no medium or large-scale enterprise shall be allowed to come into existence in future which will produce goods or services that cottage or small-scale enterprises can produce. † The main aim of following this path was to enlarge employment, have a decentralsied pattern of production which would ensure reduction in regional disparities in income and wealth. (iv) Heavy and basic industries to be developed by the public sector : The Gandhian model did recognise the need for the development of heavy and basic industries and assigned this role for the public sector.Gandhian model intended to tackle the problem of distribution of income at the production end and not at the level of consumption of fiscal measures. It did emphasize employment as the principal means of providing national minimum and removal of poverty . Rao-Man Mohan Model of Development Rao-Man Mohan Model of Development was introduced in 1991. It emphasised privatisation and globalisation of the economy. 1) Firstly, areas hitherto reserved fro the public sector were to be opened to the private sector. Although the government failed to transfer the ownership of public sector undertakings to the private sector in view of the strong opposition by the workers and left parities, it did liberate the economy and opened areas of heavy industry and economic infrastructure to the private sector – both domestic and foreign. 2)Secondly, the government abolished licensing in all industries except a small list of 10 industries. In other words, it removed bureaucratic shackles on investment. 3)Thirdly, it free the MRTP companies from the ceiling on assets.This implied that even big business, was allowed to invest without any ceiling being prescribed by the Monopoly and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Commission. Obviously, considerations of growth dominates more with the government than those of monopoly control. 4)Fourthly, foreign direct investment was facilitated. Automatic approvals for direct foreign investment upto 51 per cent in high priority areas were granted. Government was even prepared to consider proposals involving more than 51 per cent equity on a case-by-case basis. )Fifthly, performance of the public sector undertakings was to be improved by granting them greater autonomy. For this the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was devised and PSUs managements and boards were made more professional. 6)Lastly, to globalise the economy the government followed a policy of reducing import barriers and also one of encouraging export promotion. Such a course would facilitate the free flow of foreign capital and technology and thus help to modernise our economy.Rao-Manmohan Model of development has also been the subject of criticism. The main points of criticism are : i) The model was by passed agriculture and agro-based industries which are the major sources of employment generation. (ii) The model has a very narrow focus since it emphasises the corporate sector growth which accounts for only 10 per cent of GDP. 1. (iii) Although in the Industrial Policy of 1991, Multinational Corporation (MNCs) were to be permitted in high priority areas, the government has been indiscriminately permitting them even in consumer goods industries. Need it be emphasised that MNCs follow a highly capital intensive pattern of production and have thus restricted the growth of employment. iv) MNCs after entry in various joint venture raise their equity to 51 per cent level or even more and thus push out the Indian partners.This has led to the Indian industry asking for protection against the onslaught of multinationals. MNCs after entry in various joint ventures raise their equity to 51 per cent level or even more and thus push out the Indian partner. This has led to the Indian industry asking for protection against the onslaught of multinationals. To sum up, Rao-Manmohan model has succeeded on growth by raising GDP growth rate to more than 6 per cent level, but it has failed on equity, employment and poverty removal. How to cite Gandhian Model of Development, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Domestic Violence Against Women free essay sample

Domestic Violence against Women as a Grave Threat to Society Domestic violence, or intimate partner violence as it is also referred, is a serious problem in today’s society. This paper will focus on physical violence and abuse against women, though other types of abuse exist. Despite new and emerging laws, advocates speaking out, and a slight decrease in overall reported domestic violence incidents, women are still victims. There are adverse effects to prolonged and/or severe abuse, not the least of which include mental and social disorders, physical illness, feelings of guilt and shame, suicide ideation and even homicide. Domestic abuse is a grave threat to society because it can be linked directly to all of these lifelong illnesses and even some crimes. Domestic violence against women is defined by the United Nations’ Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women as â€Å"physical, social, and/or psychological violence within the family, the community, and/or any violence that is condoned by the state† (Morgaine 2007). Domestic violence is not a new issue. It is present in every culture around the world and can be traced back through human existence. What is new is how this issue is being dealt with in society and by the government. The World Health Organization found in studies conducted in the late 1990s that one of every three women worldwide have been a victim of violence by a partner in an intimate relationship at some point in their lifetime (Nayak et al. 2003). This number is astounding. With violence and abuse toward women almost commonplace in intimate relationships, the question begs to be asked: What is being done to stop it? Since the 1970s, many laws have been amended or created to include more variables of abuse. Victims do not have to seek divorce or separation before they are granted help. Laws requiring an arrest if a claim of domestic abuse is made and police are called out to the scene have been passed and put into effect. Other laws and programs have been put into place in favor of the victim. They were created to help victims seek out help. In 1994, and in a reauthorization in 2000, the United States passed the Violence against Women Act. This act prompted a response by the legislature, resulting in â€Å"amended definitions, and expanded civil and criminal court remedies (Scott and Kunselman 2007). Social changes, such as the Civil Rights movement and women’s rights activists finally speaking out against domestic violence made the issue a concern of public health as well as an issue of basic human rights. The federal and state governments stepped in to try to curb domestic violence and provided various resources for victims in need. Shelters, hotlines and crisis centers emerged as safe havens for battered women (Rajan and McCloskey 2007). Finally, these women had some place to turn to for help. Despite these laws, however, violence against women is still a very big problem in the United States. Decree and relief from the violence are completely different things, unfortunately. Even though laws were put into place, law enforcement could only do so much. Often times, because of the laws, police were forced to arrest victims as well as the perpetrators because they had not witnessed the event. In other situations, the male was simply told to leave and regain composure before returning to the home, with no consequences enforced (Rajan and McCloskey 2007). These situations did not protect the victims, in fact, it left them quite vulnerable. In 1976, Pennsylvania passed the Pennsylvania Protection from Abuse Act. This act provided protective orders to all victims of intimate partner violence within the state of Pennsylvania. This began several years of reforms and new legal protections under the law (Rajan and McCloskey 2007). The system is not a safe fail, though. There has been a decrease in domestic violence in the last twenty years, but many abusers go unpunished. Without consequences, abusers and victims continue in the cycle of repeat abuse. In a study conducted in 2000, there showed to be approximately 908,000 victimizations against women each year between 1992 and 1999. From the study it was learned that 91% of the women surveyed had been victims of repeat abuse, that is five or more incidences within a six month period (Rand and Saltzman 2003). It really is no wonder then that battered and abused women suffer from mental and social disorders as a direct result from their ordeals. Abuse has severe and lifelong consequences even after the abuse stops. Negative, physical health problems in addition to death and physical injury, have been reported as follows: autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue, chronic pain, gastrointestinal problems, heart disease, obesity, pulmonary problems, , severe headaches and/or migraines, sexually transmitted diseases, sleep disorders, somatic syndromes and an overall higher dependence on healthcare services. The psychological health problems related to intimate partner violence are depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. It has also been found that 51% of women who attempted suicide had a history of intimate partner violence (Renner and Markward 2009). Studies and research have shown a decline in intimate partner violence since the late 1980s and early 1990s (Morgaine 2007). In spite of this, a decline does not mean that the damage to these women in society has not already been done. These battered women are often left broken or as shadows of their former selves. Many suffer from the aforementioned physical and psychological disorders and cannot reacclimatize with society because of these conditions. Survivors may still be trying to come to terms with the damage years later and carry those physical and emotional scars with them for the rest of their lives. They may seek help, whether through professional counseling or legal prosecution of their abusers. The system has set up many resources and made them readily available, but mostly, victims of domestic abuse feel they are on their own. Many factors play a role in why a lot of abuse goes unreported and if and/or when a victim leaves an abusive relationship. Some victims fear further violence and loss of resources and shelter. This may lead a victim to stay in the relationship longer or even return to the abusive relationship (Brandi and Dawson 2011). Being forced to face the shame of being a victim and feelings of guilt also prevent women from reporting what was done to them. For some women, finding the strength to leave is the most important thing in the world to them. Once out of the situation, it is easier to forget and move on then face the exposure of a legal trial. It is this mentality of guilt, shame and fear felt by these victimized women that society does not understand. One study showed different preconceived ideas about what causes domestic violence and even what women do to deserve the abuse. Those ideas that ranked over . 50 in the survey included the ideas that 1) nagging lead to violence in the home, 2) women deserve to be beaten, 3) battered women’s actions cause their husbands to beat them, 4) a man is justified to beat his wife if she is unfaithful and 5) if women are obedient and take care of their husbands they would never get beaten (Nayak et al. 2003). Given these results, it is easy to see why victims feel so alone. A large portion of society blames the woman or believes that the violence could have been prevented in some way. A common question from non-battered women in society is â€Å"why didn’t she just leave? †. The answer to this, though not proven, is not that difficult to understand. A woman, who is being physically abused, is usually being emotionally abused and manipulated as well. A real threat of death may keep women from leaving. Resources may have been taken away from these women: money, cars, even jobs. They are usually isolated from the people that care about them. The abusers are their husbands, boyfriends, and significant others, oftentimes the only person left to love them. The abusive relationship is all they know. Domestic violence poses a grave threat to society because it can lead to further crime. Battered women may feel so trapped that there is no other way out than homicide. The homicide rate within intimate partner violence has dropped significantly in the last twenty five years due to increased public awareness and new policies, but it still exists (Dugan, Nagin, and Rosenfield 2003). Retaliation or feelings of being trapped lead some battered women to commit crimes they never would have before. Ironically, the resources that have been put into place to protect women from violence have actually played a crucial role in reducing the number of intimate partner homicides at the hands of victims. Studies have shown that regardless of whether there are resources available or not to help battered women, men’s violent tendencies stayed the same. This may seem to be a benefit to society, since homicide is being prevented, but it also shines light on something else. The laws that have been put into place need to be revised. Women are still unsafe and policy needs to be dramatically altered to deal with that (Dugan, Nagin, and Rosenfield 2003). If the government and society worked harder to accept domestic violence as not just a problem, but as a violation of human rights, as it is directly stated in the fourteenth amendment, these women might stand a chance. If nothing changes, one out of every three women will continue to be at risk of developing serious health problems, continuing to be exposed to violence, and getting so lost in the shuffle of the legal system that they take the law into their own hands.